noviembre 19, 2015

¿Cuáles son las fallas más comunes de un compresor de refrigeración?

Al enfrentarnos con problemas en nuestro sistema de refrigeración que pueden afectar a nuestro compresor, tenemos que hacer un análisis e identificar qué tipo de falla estamos experimentando.

Existen categorías generales de fallas en el sistema que podrían estar afectando al sistema completo y/o al compresor de refrigeración. En seguida enlistamos y explicamos las más comunes:

1. Retorno de Líquido

Este problema es de los más comunes y ocurre durante el ciclo de funcionamiento de la máquina. Sucede cuando se presenta un sobrecalentamiento del gas de succión del compresor tiende a 0. Esta succión “húmeda” puede remover la película lubricante de las partes móviles del compresor y provocar su rotura mecánica gracias al efecto detergente del refrigerante,

Si el líquido logra pasar por los canales internos de aceite hacia los cilindros, puede remover tanto su lubricación como la de los pistones, causando estrías y sobrecalentamiento. Esta situación puede provocar la contaminación interior de la máquina.

2. Golpe de líquido

La característica principal de un compresor dañado por un golpe de líquido es que por dentro no se observará desgaste, ni los pistones estarán rayados, sino que se romperán las bielas, o repentinamente se reventarán. los flappers de los compresores estándar.

Una de las principales causas del golpe de líquido es que el refrigerante regresa al compresor en estado líquido debido a que la válvula de expansión no está correctamente dimensionada.

En muchos casos, las válvulas instaladas en el campo son seleccionadas por personas que no están correctamente capacitadas, por lo que un técnico experto debe tener especial cuidado al revisar estas válvulas.

La segunda causa de este problema, es el retorno del refrigerante líquido por la carga reducida, lo que provoca un congelamiento del serpentín de expansión directa debido a un flujo reducido de aire.

Ante estas condiciones, por lo general, la válvula de expansión no es capaz de proporcionar un control preciso.

3. Problemas con la lubricación

La falta le lubricante en áreas importantes está relacionada con el desgaste excesivo de las piezas. Los problemas que afectan comúnmente la lubricación son:

Dilución del aceite

Probablemente el problema más común de la lubricación es la dilución del aceite. Debido a que existe una gran afinidad del aceite con el refrigerante, durante los periodos de paro prolongados el aceite se puede diluir con el refrigerante, haciendo que éste pierda gran parte de sus cualidades como lubricante.

Pérdida de aceite

Existen varios motivos que causan la pérdida de aceite de un compresor, algunos de ellos son: ciclaje corto, excesiva espumación de aceite y largos períodos de funcionamiento con carga mínima.

La pérdida de aceite impide que el cigüeñal reciba la lubricación o enfriamiento necesario, lo que causa una cantidad excesiva de calor y desgaste en los agujeros de las bielas.

Viscosidad del aceite

El supercalentamiento del compresor y el resultante recalentamiento del aceite provocan que el aceite pierda su viscosidad, haciéndolo incapaz de lubricar las partes móviles adecuadamente.

4. Contaminación del sistema

Son las fallas vinculadas con el desgaste excesivo provocado por el daño mecánico o por el recalentamiento del motor. Algunos de los contaminantes más comunes encontrados en los sistemas de refrigeración son: humedad, óxido y suciedad, entre otros.

Humedad

La oxidación, corrosión, descomposición del refrigerante, o deterioro general, son algunos de los posibles efectos de tener la presencia de agua en forma de humedad en un sistema frigorífico.

Una forma de detectar la presencia de humedad en un sistema es a través del análisis del aceite lubricante del compresor. Los resultados en la cantidad de humedad en el aceite no deben ser mayores a 50 ppm.

La contaminación por humedad es causada por el aire introducido al sistema durante la instalación de tuberías de cualquier línea de refrigerante. Otra manera en que se presenta esta situación es por el uso de aceites refrigerantes manipulados inadecuadamente y usados como sustituto del aceite del compresor.

Suciedad

Además de la humedad, la suciedad y otras malas prácticas al momento de realizar la instalación son generalmente causantes de serios problemas cuando el sistema de refrigeración se pone en funcionamiento.

Materiales extraños como suciedad, fundente de soldadura, o productos químicos en combinación con el aire producen desequilibrios que provocan la ruptura de las moléculas de aceite. Estos factores aliados con el calor producido por las altas temperaturas de descarga del sistema, y temperaturas de fricción, pueden resultar en la formación de ácidos, lodo o una combinación de ambos.

Óxido

La formación de óxido se produce cuando el calor es aplicado en la presencia de aire. Los óxidos pueden aparecer de diversas formas:

– Férrico = Rojo

– Ferroso = Negro

– Cuproso = Rojo

– Cúprico = Negro

La aparición de estas sustancias se puede evitar expulsando el aire que está dentro del tubo con un gas inerte antes de aplicar el calor. En caso de observar vestigios de óxidos en el sistema frigorífico, éstos pueden ser retirados instalando un filtro de limpieza en la línea de succión para retener el material antes de que entre al compresor.

5. Problemas eléctricos

Son todos aquellos problemas que no son causados por daños mecánicos y que pueden generar fallas en otras partes del sistema de refrigeración. Por lo general, la primera reacción cuando un motor se quema es pensar que algún componente del sistema eléctrico ha fallado, cuando la mayoría de las veces ese no es el caso.

Las fallas más comunes relacionadas con la parte eléctrica se originan por alguna de las siguientes causas: bajo voltaje, embobinados en corto circuito, súper recalentamientos, arrastre del rotor y de problemas de comando eléctrico.

Conclusión

Una vez que hayamos experimentado alguna falla en nuestro compresor de refrigeración, o dentro del sistema, la vida del compresor recuperado dependerá del cuidado y la limpieza del sistema. Esto no sólo aplica para las fallas por contaminación, sino también para las demás.

Es importante que hagamos una instalación adecuada, con los componentes correctos, y realizar un buen mantenimiento a nuestro equipo para asegurar el máximo rendimiento. Además siempre debemos asesorarnos con técnicos especializados para verificar que estamos instalando, manipulando y haciendo un uso adecuado de nuestro compresor de refrigeración.

 

cta-glosario-de-partes

Refrigeración y Aire Acondicionado
Sobre Bitzer

214 Comentarios
  1. Hola que tal quisiera saber por que el separador de aceite no hace su función de refmgresar el aceite al compresor y cual es la función del compresor para regresar el aceite y cuantos litros de aceite lleva un comoresor de doble etapa semi hermético gracias

  2. Por que suenan las válvulas de expansión y el indicador de liquido se ve que pasa liquido y de repente se ve lleno y sigue chillando las válvulas y no sale liquido puro gas y el resiver se enfría

  3. Hola, ¿donde podría conseguir los pares de apriete de los tornillos de ensamblaje de los compresores?. Muchas gracias

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