January 14, 2016

Checklist de mantenimiento Básico de un Compresor de Refrigeración

El secreto para mejorar el rendimiento y vida útil de un compresor de refrigeración es su mantenimiento. Conforme seamos capaces de dedicarle tiempo y esfuerzo al cuidado del compresor, éste incrementa considerablemente su rendimiento a través del tiempo.

El mantenimiento del equipo tiene el objetivo de reducir las posibles fallas del equipo, al asegurarse de que todas las piezas y/o componentes sean revisados.

A continuación les proporcionamos algunas recomendaciones para realizar un mantenimiento efectivo:

  1. Una de las principales revisiones que se tiene que realizar a un compresor de refrigeración es comprobar el estado de lubricación que presenta. De esta forma podemos evitar el desgaste en las partes móviles.

La lubricación puede ser realizada por dos métodos principalmente:

  • Uno de ellos es a través de una bomba que inyecta aceite a las superficies de rozamiento del compresor. La presión del aceite es controlada por medio de un presostato que protege al compresor en caso de falta de lubricación.
  • Otra tecnología utilizada es la de disco dinámico, que por medio de fuerza centrífuga hace correr el aceite a través de los componentes internos del compresor. Esta tecnología utiliza un sensor óptico de nivel para proteger al compresor en caso de falta de lubricación.
  1. Nivel de aceite: si el nivel está bajo (mín. ¼ de mirilla) tenemos que añadir más aceite y supervisar el equipo por un lapso de tres a cuatro horas en operación continua, para determinar la causa del bajo nivel (OJO: Tomar en cuenta la tasa de retorno de aceite del sistema antes de añadir más aceite).
  1. Empaques del compresor: revisar que mantengan la hermeticidad adecuada para evitar pérdidas de refrigerante, ya que esto puede causar daños a la capa de ozono y pérdidas en el sistema.
  1. El análisis del aceite también es importante ya que queremos evitar que nuestro compresor sufra un sobrecalentamiento y aumente el desgaste de sus piezas.
  1. Limpieza de la carcasa: tenemos que quitar el polvo acumulado para facilitar el enfriamiento por radiación y convención.
  1. En compresores abiertos se debe verificar el estado del sello mecánico con una lámpara haloidea para encontrar cuarteaduras y comprobar que no haya fugas de refrigerante.
  1. Comprobar la resistencia de los devanados de línea a línea (bornes / postes de placa de terminales).

Una vez realizado el mantenimiento debemos hacer una inspección y evaluación del equipo. Este mantenimiento es un proceso que se debe optimizar y actualizar cuando se adquieren nuevos modelos.

Es muy importante que todos los mantenimientos estén documentados e incorporados a las actividades de rutina, calibraciones e inspecciones.

*Las acciones propuestas son recomendaciones y no garantizan el buen funcionamiento del sistema de refrigeración en general. Estas recomendaciones son sólo algunas de las acciones a realizar en un mantenimiento completo del sistema de refrigeración.

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Refrigeración y Aire Acondicionado
Sobre Bitzer

105 Comentarios
  1. Siempre damos consejos a nuestros clientes sobre cómo llevar a cabo el correcto mantenimiento de sus aparatos de aire acondicionado. Sin embargo, sobre todo con las personas mayores, es difícil que puedan llevar a cabo una larga lista de consejos pues a veces su memoria falla.

    Saludos

  2. Buen post sobre un tema tan complicado como son los compresores

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  4. Gran artículo sobre los compresores de refrigeración ya que nos da recomendaciones sobre el mantenimiento de éstos y que puede sernos muy útil.

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