febrero 18, 2016

¿Cómo solucionar el calentamiento excesivo de un compresor de refrigeración?

Uno de los problemas más comunes en un compresor de refrigeración es el calentamiento excesivo. Esta situación puede generar distintos problemas que afectan la vida de nuestro compresor, por ello es muy importante conocer qué causa lo origina y cómo se puede solucionar, y evitar así un daño irreparable.

Un sobrecalentamiento del compresor provoca que el aceite pierda su viscosidad y no pueda lubricar las partes móviles adecuadamente. El resultado es un desgaste intenso, adherencia de las partes, y carbonización del aceite.

Un hecho que normalmente acompaña a este problema es el desgaste de los pistones. En teoría, el pistón tiene un mayor diámetro que el cilindro interno del cilindro en altas temperaturas, lo que produce que el pistón se desgaste y no pueda trabajar.

Además, la alta temperatura de descarga puede causar la carbonización del aceite, principalmente en las válvulas (flappers) de alta presión. En casos extremos, incluso puede restringir su movimiento, ocasionando que el pasaje del gas de descarga vuelva para la succión.

Causas de sobrecalentamiento del compresor

Entre las causas más comunes se encuentran:

– Alta razón de compresión

– Baja carga del refrigerante

– Control de capacidad del compresor

Debido a que el calor del motor y el calor de fricción producido por un compresor están siempre presentes, cualquier variación abajo del mínimo requerido en las condiciones del flujo de refrigerante, priva al compresor del enfriamiento necesario.

En caso de que esto ocurra, se deben verificar las temperaturas del aceite y de la descarga. La temperatura del aceite se toma en superficies planas y limpias. Para ello se necesita un termómetro firmemente sujetado a la superficie y aislado para obtener una mejor lectura. Una consideración importante al aplicar esta técnica de medición es que las lecturas podrían ser imprecisas a causa de pérdidas de conducción de calor a través del metal.

Por otro lado, la viscosidad del aceite se ve afectada cuando su temperatura llega a un rango entre los 85 y los 95 grados centígrados. Cualquier lectura registrada en este rango, aumenta la posibilidad de que las películas de aceite se destruyan provocando el contacto metal contra metal, y eventualmente un fallo mecánico.

Además, la temperatura de descarga no debe superar los 125°C, para evitar el sobrecalentamiento en el área de los cilindros del compresor.

Esa diferencia de temperatura no debe ser considerada como una línea entre el bien y el mal. El proceso de descomposición del aceite se extiende sobre una amplia banda de temperaturas, y en las temperaturas citadas, lo que ubica este proceso en un estado de descomposición acelerada. Esta es la razón por la cuál la temperatura es crítica y sujeta muchas otras variables.

La alta razón de compresión generalmente se debe a problemas relacionados con el condensador, evaporador, y el inadecuado control del sistema. La solución para este problema es verificar la limpieza del evaporador y condensador, la tasa de flujo de aire o agua del condensador, y las temperaturas de entrada y salida del agua o del aire.

El funcionamiento y control del sistema deben ser completamente controlados para identificar el mal funcionamiento que pueda resultar en un bajo flujo de la masa del refrigerante.

Por otro lado, la baja carga de refrigerante se caracteriza por la presencia de burbujeo de gas en el visor de la línea de líquido, por la baja presión de succión y por el gas de succión altamente sobrecalentado. La solución para este problema en particular es agregar refrigerante al sistema.

Por último, la colocación del control de capacidad de un compresor debajo de la capacidad mínima, puede ocasionar una masa de flujo de refrigerante menor que el exigido para el adecuado enfriamiento del compresor. La solución es limitar el control de capacidad del compresor para controlar las condiciones del sistema.

cta-glosario-de-partes

Refrigeración y Aire Acondicionado
Sobre Bitzer

167 Comentarios
  1. Muy buena idea …. sigamos adelanteA

  2. Exelente, este tipo de informaciones ayudaa que nosotros los tecnicos, podamos revisar mejor una falla en nuestros equipos.
    Gracias…

  3. Buenas Tardes,

    Una pregunta existe algun video que muestre fisicamente como se hace un overhaul completo de algun modelo de compresor Bitzer?

  4. las malas instalaciones son las causantes del 99% de las averias, por ello en http://www.instaladoratermica.com descontamos el transporte si se realiza la instalacion del aire acondicionado con un instalador colaborador.

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  10. buenas noches, tengo un compresor de piston semi hermetico R507, es para un frigorico de cuarto de congelacion y cuarto de conservacion, pero tengo un problema que solo me enfria y me congela el cuarto de congelacion, y el cuarto de conservacion no enfria lo que deberia enfriar, no se ha que se debe esto, que me recomiendan hacer o solucionar. gracias

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