diciembre 16, 2016

Avanzan estudios sobre la nanotecnología aplicada a la refrigeración

El proyecto Q-NET (Quantum Formación Nanoelectrónica) es una red europea destinada a promover la capacitación técnica de investigadores experimentados en diferentes campos de aplicación de esta tecnología; entre ellos, el referido a la industria de la refrigeración. Los investigadores están encargados de desarrollar nuevos conceptos, materiales y métodos de aplicación con el fin de crear nuevos tipos de nanoestructuras.

Los socios franceses e italianos del Proyecto Q-NET han propuesto un nuevo diseño para un enfriador superconductor donde el enfriamiento se lleva a cabo en un sistema en cascada. Gracias a esta operación, de múltiples etapas, el refrigerador puede enfriar un metal normal con un rendimiento mejorado en comparación con refrigeradores similares.

En Finlandia, otro éxito del proyecto viene dado por la demostración de la termometría electrónica en una escala de tiempo de microsegundos. El dispositivo se basa en la unión de un túnel de metal aislante superconductor acoplado a un circuito resonante en radiofrecuencia.

En España también se hacen movimientos en el estudio de la nanotecnología en refrigeración. Uno de los mayores exponentes de ellos es el estudio “Prospectiva Tecnológica sobre la aplicación de la Nanotecnología en el sector de la refrigeración y la climatización”, promovido por la Agencia IDEA (Agencia de Innovación y Desarrollo de Andalucía).

Entre las conclusiones del estudio destacan, como áreas tecnológicas de mayor relevancia, la sustitución de materiales metálicos por compuestos poliméricos, la investigación en nuevos ciclos de refrigeración aplicando nanotecnología, el desarrollo de nuevos aislantes y la investigación de nuevos refrigerantes y sensores de gases. Por su parte, se identifican como áreas con mayor potencial de desarrollo los sectores de la construcción y el sanitario, sobre todo en lo referido a refrigeración y climatización en cuanto al aislamiento térmico y la protección frente a ambientes agresivos.

El trabajo recoge entre sus principales conclusiones la necesidad de financiación para proyectos de I+D para el sector en áreas como el uso de recubrimientos protectores, nuevos refrigerantes, aislantes y «nanocomposites» que sustituyan a materiales metálicos, así como la conveniencia de promover estudios de viabilidad tecnológica y de mercado previos.

Refrigeración y Aire Acondicionado
Sobre Bitzer

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