julio 10, 2017

¿POR QUE FALLAN LOS COMPRESORES?

RETORNO DE LÍQUIDO

¿Qué es el retorno de líquido?

Ocurre cuando refrigerante ingresa en estado líquido al compresor durante la operación.

¡Los líquidos no se comprimen!  El daño causado dependerá de la cantidad de líquido y de la repetitividad del hecho. En cantidades pequeñas remueve el aceite de las zonas de alta fricción generando el desgaste prematuro de sus partes mecánicas. En casos de grandes cantidades de líquido refrigerante puede llegar a convertirse en golpe de líquido.

 

¿Cómo puedo identificar un retorno de líquido?

Revisar y monitorear el recalentamiento en la succión del compresor es la mejor manera identificar un potencial retorno de líquido.

La formación de espuma espesa en la mirilla de aceite indica que el aceite está diluido con líquido refrigerante.

OJO: La formación de escarcha en la línea de succión NO es un indicio seguro de retorno de líquido. Siempre hay que revisar el recalentamiento para asegurarse.

Es importante siempre tomar mediciones y poner atención en las condiciones de todo el sistema.

 

¿Qué causa un retorno de líquido?

Son varios los factores que pueden llevar a un retorno de líquido.

  • El principal: Bajo recalentamiento a la succión del compresor. El mínimo recalentamiento recomendado (BITZER) es:


Reciprocantes: 8°C                                      Tornillos: 3°C                         Scroll: 6°C

 

  • Mala selección de la válvula de expansión. Bulbo sensor y/o igualador externo mal colocado o dañados.
  • Evaporador obstruido o escarchado, ventiladores sin funcionar, filtro sucio o aceite dentro del evaporador, lo que ocasiona un intercambio de calor pobre en el evaporador.
  • Baja carga térmica (poco o nulo producto a refrigerar).
  • Mal dimensionamiento y diseño de las tuberías y/o trampas de aceite (retornos de refrigerante y/o aceite incorrectos). ¡Los golpes de líquido también pueden ser por exceso de aceite!
  • Retornos de líquido desde el condensador (arriba del compresor) en periodos de paro.

 

¿Cómo puedo prevenir un retorno de líquido?

  • La mejor protección: Un buen ajuste de recalentamiento y su monitoreo periódico.
  • Revisar el buen estado del evaporador (sin obstrucciones por suciedad o congelamiento) y los ventiladores para asegurar un buen flujo de aire e intercambio de calor.
  • Se deben llevar a cabo ciclos de deshielo efectivos cuando se requiera.
  • Instalar y mantener encendida la resistencia calentadora del cárter en periodos de paro.
  • Se debe asegurar el buen diseño de las tuberías y trampas de aceite.
  • Son buenas prácticas una secuencia de recolección de refrigerante al apagar el compresor (pump-down) y la instalación de una válvula de retención “check” en la descarga del compresor.
  • En ocasiones puede ser necesaria la instalación de un acumulador de succión.
  • Es muy importante también revisar el recalentamiento en la inyección de líquido para enfriamiento del compresor (en caso de ser utilizada).
  • Mantener un registro periódico de las condiciones de operación del sistema.

Realizar los mantenimientos correspondientes al equipo conservando su minuta.

“Siempre debe analizarse cada compresor que falla. El trabajo de investigación y la información obtenida indicarán las acciones correctivas a tomar para evitar la repetición de la falla”.

Sin Categoría
Sobre Bitzer

63 Comentarios
  1. Gracias por el post. Muy útil.

  2. Alejandro Lopez Cabrales septiembre 25, 2017 at 11:14 pm Responder

    Muy buenas recomendaciones, recientemente se nos daño un compresor por mal manejo en el proceso de cambio de gas refrigerante de R-22 A 407 C. NO CAMBIARON EL TIPO DE ACEITE que ya no era compatible con el nuevo refrigerante. Y he leído que esto puede provocar fallas en el retorno de liquido y obstrucción de capilares.

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